Central Pollution Control Board has released guidelines on the design construction, O&M, and annual certification of coal ash ponds.
The combustion of coal in Thermal Power Plant (TPP) produces Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs) which is a collective term referring to fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and fluidized bed combustion ash. After ignition at high temperature the coal resolve in to different solid fractions. Most of the fine dust entrained by the flue gases leaving the boiler and collected by fabric filter or electrostatic precipitator is known as precipitated fly Ash (PFA), which results 80% of the total coal combustion. The rest of 20% particle, including unburned carbon settle to the bottom of the boiler called Bottom Ash (BA). Because of economic viability, thermal power stations most widely dispose both precipitated fly ash and bottom ash together as a slurry to the pond in which it stored for a longer period. As the reuse potential of ash has been increasing during recent years, segregated storage of fly ash and bottom ash is likely to gain popularity among power plant considering better economical returns from sale of fly ash.
According to the notification of Union Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Ash means all the coal or lignite ash generated at TPP, such as ESP Ash (Electro Static Precipitator), dry Fly Ash, Bottom Ash (BA), Pond Ash and Mound Ash fort the purpose of utilization.
Environmental pollution by the coal based thermal power plants are cited to be the major source of pollution affecting the general aesthetics of environment in terms of land use, health hazardous and air, soil and water in particular and thus leads environmental dangers. Safe disposal and gainful utilization are the prime concerns to safe guard the interest of environmental system.
These guidelines have been prepared solely for the benefit of thermal power plants in India. No liability is accepted with respect to its use. This disclaimer shall apply notwithstanding that these guidelines may be used by other persons for any application.
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