Worldwide, more than 65% of fly ash produced from coal power stations is disposed of in landfills and ash ponds. Ash that is stored or deposited outdoors can eventually leach toxic compounds into underground water aquifers. Fly ash consists primarily of oxides of silicon, aluminum iron and calcium. Magnesium, potassium, sodium, titanium, and sulfur are also present to a lesser degree. When used as a mineral admixture in concrete, fly ash is classified as either Class C or Class F ash based on its chemical composition. Fly ash use in concrete improves the workability of plastic concrete, and the strength and durability of hardened concrete. Fly ash use is also cost effective. When fly ash is added to concrete, the amount of portland cement may be reduced. Benefits to Fresh Concrete.